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ESR 3.1: The influence of the presence of antibiotics, chlorine, disinfectants and heavy metals in environmental water streams on the gut microbiome




The goal of this project is to study the influence of the presence of antibiotic, chlorine, disinfectants and heavy metals in environmental water streams on the gut microbiome, possibly leading to an increased presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in the gut. The results will be used to support prevention and improve diagnostics of ARB in patients. The PhD student will analyse the effect of colonization with ARB, as community-acquired ARB, and correlate incidence of ARB infection with length of hospital stay, treatment success and healthcare costs.
The PhD student will be trained in the Molecular Bacteriology and Genomics for Infection Prevention groups at the Department of Medical Microbiology of the University Medical Center Groningen in Groningen, which are highly experienced in cross-border network studies addressing the molecular epidemiology of ARB and infection control, the Centre of Excellence for Water in Leeuwarden for a secondment for one year and six months, and and the Nanobiophotonics Department of the Institute of Photonic Technology in Jena, Germany for a six-month internship.


  • Prof. Dr. Alexander Friedrich
  • Dr. Hermie Harmsen
  • Dr. John Rossen
  • Dr. Silvia Garcia Cobos
  • Dr. Ruud Deurenberg

UMCG [www.mmb-umcg.nl]


Dr. Lucia Hernández Leal, Wetsus 
Dr. Wolfgang Fritzsche, IPTH ​

Relevant publications

  1. Harmsen HJM, de Goffau MC. The Human Gut Microbiota. Adv Exp Med Biol. United States; 2016;902:95–108.
  2. Zhou K, Lokate M, Deurenberg RH, Tepper M, Arends JP, Raangs EGC, et al. Use of whole-genome sequencing to trace, control and characterize the regional expansion of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae. Sci Rep. 2016 Feb 11;6.
  3. Schröder U-C, Beleites C, Assmann C, Glaser U, Hübner U, Pfister W, et al. Detection of vancomycin resistances in enterococci within 3 ½ hours. Sci Rep [Internet]. 2015;5:8217.


antibiotics, gut, microbiome, water